# Gitam University Admission Test for Under Graduate Courses (GAT UGT) 2013 Chemistry Syllabus

Gitam University releases Notification for Admission to Undergraduate programmes in all it’s campuses.GAT (UGT )2013 is of computer based Examination to be conducted from **17th April to 8th May 2013** at different centres. Exam will be of multiple choice type with duration of 2 hrs. The pattern is as follows:

Section | Subject | No. of Questions | No. of Marks |
---|---|---|---|

A | Mathematics / Biology | 40 | 120 |

B | Physics | 30 | 90 |

C | Chemistry | 30 | 90 |

Total | 100 | 300 |

Candidates are informed that we are mentioning the syllabus of Mathematics for GAT(UGT) 2013 to facilitate themselves and to prepare well for the exam:

**Section -B:Physics (SYllabus):**

**UNIT – I**

**1. UNITS AND DIMENSIONS,ERRORS:**

**UNITS AND DIMENSIONS :** Units for fundamental and derived quantities; Systems of Units; SI system of units – rules for writing unit, derived units, multiple units and sub multiple units in SI system; Measurement for quantitative study, Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; Errors due to external causes – constant type, systematic type and environmental type; Errors due to imperfections in experimental techniques/procedure/personal/observation – random errors, gross errors, absolute errors, mean absolute error and relative error percentage error; errors due to addition, subtraction, multiplication division and powers of observed

quantities; dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional formulae, applications and limitations of dimensional analysis.

**2. ELEMENTS OF VECTORS:** Classification of physical quantities as vectors and scalars Geometrical representation of vectors – Addition and subtraction of vectors. Laws of addition of vectors – Equal and null vectors. Unit vectors – Unit vectors in Cartesian co-ordinate system – position vector and its magnitude. Parallelogram law of vectors – Expression for the resultant vector. Triangle law and polygon law of vectors – concept of relative velocity- application to relative motion of a boat in a river. Multiplication of a vector with a scalar – Scalar product with examples of work and energy – Vector product with examples of torque and angular momentum – Vector and Scalar product of unit vectors.

**3. KINEMATICS:** Description of Uniform and accelerated motion using velocitytime and position-time graphs; Concept of acceleration due to gravity -Equations of motion of freely falling body – vertically projected body from ground and tower – Projectiles with examples – Oblique projection from ground and horizontal projection from the top of tower – Path of projectile. Maximum height, time of flight and range. Concept of resultant force.

**UNIT – II**

**1. DYNAMICS:** Introduction: Newton’s laws of motion Applications of Newton’s laws – Objects suspended by strings, Atwood machine, blocks placed in contact with each other on frictionless horizontal surface, apparent weight in a lift. Impulse, Law of conservation of linear momentum. Conservation of linear momentum during collision. Frames of reference, Work, power, energy, Potential Energy(PE), Kinetic Energy (KE): Definition and derivation for both. Relation between KE and Linear momentum. Conservative and non-conservative forces, Work -energy theorem, law of conservation of energy In case of freely falling body and vertically – projected body.

**2. FRICTION:** Introduction-Cause of friction, advantages of friction, disadvantages of friction, methods of reducing friction. Types of friction: Static friction, Dynamic friction and rolling friction. Distinction between Static and dynamic friction. Normal reaction – laws of friction, static friction, Kinetic friction or Dynamic friction, Rolling friction. Angle of friction, motion of body on rough horizontal plane, motion of bodies on an inclined plane, body at rest on the plane, angle of repose when the body is just ready to slide, when the body is sliding down. Motion of a body on smooth inclined plane, body sliding down the plane, body sliding up the plane. Motion along rough inclined plane, body sliding down the plane, body sliding up the plane. Pushing and pulling of a lawn roller. A lawn roller on a horizontal surface pulled by an inclined force, a roller on horizontal surface pushed by an inclined force.

**UNIT-III**

**1. CENTRE OF MASS:** Introduction, Centre of mass, difference between centre of mass and centre of gravity. Co-ordinates of centre of mass. Centre of mass of particles along a line, center of mass of system of particles in a plane, center of mass of system of particles in space. Centre of mass of rigid body with homogenous distribution of mass of a thin rod, circular ring, disc and sphere. Motion of centre of mass (Velocity and acceleration of center of mass) characteristics of centre of mass, laws of motion of the centre of mass, velocity and acceleration. Explosion – motion of the centre of mass of earth – moon system

**2. COLLISIONS:** Introduction – Elastic and inelastic collisions. Collisions in one dimension (elastic and inelastic) body at rest, bodies moving in same direction and opposite directions. Co- efficient of restitution definition. Equation for height attained for freely falling body after number of rebounds on floor.

**UNIT-IV**

**1. ROTATORY MOTION:** Introduction, uniform circular motion, concept of angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration, relation between linear velocity and angular velocity, centripetal acceleration and force, torque, couple (concepts, units, dimensional formulae and examples) vector representation of torque. Moment of Inertia: Definition, units, perpendicular axis theorem. Parallel axis theorem Expressions for MI of a thin rod, uniform disc, rectangular lamina, solid and hollow spheres, circular ring and cylinder (no derivations needed). Angular Momentum: Relation between angular momentum and torque, law of conservation of angular momentum with examples. Motion in vertical circle. Rolling without shipping and toppling.

**2. GRAVITATION:** Basic forces in nature; Nature of gravity; Relation between Universal gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due to gravity(g); variation of “g” with altitude, depth, latitude and shape of earth; Limitations of Newton’s third Law – Universal law of gravitation – Black Hole. Idea of inertial and noninertial frames – Inertial and gravitational masses – Escape velocity, orbital velocity and relation between them – Geo stationary Satellites, their uses, field and potential for uniform mass distribution.

**UNIT – V**

**1. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION:** Definitions and examples – Expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period and frequency – Expressions for the time period of a simple pendulum and loaded spring – force constant , Expressions for the KE and PE of a body in SHM –Law of conservation of Energy in the case of simple pendulum.

**2. ELASTICITY :** Elasticity & Plasticity – Stress and Strain – Hooke’s Law, Moduli of elasticity (Y, n, K) – Poission’s ratio – definition and its limit; behaviour of wire under gradually increasing load – elastic fatigue, strain Energy –Experimental determination of Y- Searle’s apparatus.

**UNIT – VI**

**1. SURFACE TENSION :** Introduction, surface tension – definition, Examples, Molecular theory of surface tension, surface energy. Angle of contact, Capillarity – Examples in daily life, Determination of surface tension by capillary rise method – theory and experiment. Effect of temperature on surface tension, Excess pressure in liquid drops and soap bubbles.

**2. FLUID MECHANICS:** Introduction, Principle of Buoyancy, pressure in a fluid. Stream line flow- Bernoulli’s theorem: Equation with derivation, applications aerodynamic lift, motion of a spinning ball. Illustrations of Bernoulli’s theorem Viscosity-explanation, coefficient of viscosity, effect of temperature on viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation. Motion of objects through fluids, Stoke’s law, net force on the object, terminal velocity.

**UNIT – VII**

**1. TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL EXPANSION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND** **GASES:** Vibrations of atoms in a solid –Potential Energy Curve – anharmonicityof vibrations – Explanation of thermal expansion (only qualitative treatment –No expressions)- Coefficients of linear (á), areal (â) and volume (ã) expansions. The coefficients of real and apparent expansion of liquids and the derivation of the relationship between them- Variation of density of solids and liquids with temperature. Determination of coefficient of apparent expansion of liquid by specific gravity bottle method; Anomalous expansion of water and its significance in nature. Volume and pressure coefficients of gases – their relationship – Experimental determination of volume coefficient by Regnault’s apparatus; pressure coefficient by Jolley’s bulb apparatus; Kelvin Scale of Temperature- Boyle’s law and Charle’s law- Ideal gas equation – significance of universal gas constant.

**UNIT – VIII**

**1. THERMO DYNAMICS :** Definition of Calorie, thermal capacity, specific heat and latent heat- Experimental determination of specific heat and latent heat by method of mixtures -Joule’s law and mechanical equivalent of heat (J); Principles of heat engines and Refrigerators. Three phases of matter & triple point of water. Definitions of specific heats of gases ( Cp & Cv) – Isothermal and adiabatic processes- Relationships between P, V & T in adiabatic process;external work done by an ideal gas in adiabatic and isothermal process; Internal energy – Statements and explanation of Zero’th, first and second laws of Thermodynamics – Relationship between Cp and Cv (without using Maxwell’s Equations).

**2. TRANSMISSION OF HEAT:** Conduction of Heat – Coefficient of thermal conductivity – Convection of Heat- Nature and properties of Thermal Radiation –Prevost’s Theory of heat exchange- Emissive and absorptive power of bodiesBlack body radiation – Kirchoff’s laws and its applications – Stefan’s law,Newton’s law of cooling.

**UNIT – IX**

**1. WAVE MOTION:** Longitudinal and transverse waves, Equation for a progressive wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves. Formation of waves on a stretched string, laws of vibrating strings, experimental verification by sonometer.

**Sound:** Characteristics of sound – speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases (only formula to be given), Forced Vibrations – Free Vibrations – Resonance with examples, Standing waves in Organ Pipes – Open Pipes, Closed Pipes, Fundamental frequency, Overtones, Harmonics, definition and explanation, Beats definition and their importance. Doppler Effect: Definition, derivation of relation for apparent frequency of a sound note emitted by a source for the cases a) only source is moving b) only listener is moving c) both source and listener are moving. Applications and limitations of Doppler Effect. Echoes, Absorption of sound waves, Reverberation – Reverberation Time. Fundamentals of building Acoustics – Statement of Sabine’s Law.

**2. MAGNETISM:** Coulomb’s Inverse Square Law – Definition of Magnetic Field -Magnetic Lines of Force -Uniform and Non-Uniform Magnetic Fields. Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field, Definition of magnetic moment of magnet. Magnetic Induction due to a bar magnet on axial and equatorial lines. Superposition of magnetic fields – Tangent Law -Deflection Magnetometer. Comparison of Magnetic Moments in Tan A, Tan B positions by equal distance method and Null Method, Verification of Inverse Square Law.

**Vibration Magnetometer Principle and Description:** Experimental determination of M and H (earth’s horizontal component) using Vibration Magnetometer.Types of magnetic materials – Para, Dia and Ferro Magnetisms – Definition and properties.

**UNIT – X**

**1. RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS:** Nature of Light – Newton’s corpuscular theory – Huygen’s wave theory – Electromagnetic wave theory, Electromagnetic spectrum; Refraction through prism; derivation of refractive index of material of prism for minimum deviation – Critical angle – Total internal reflection – Relation between critical angle and refractive index – Application of total internal reflection to optical fibers. Defects in images – Spherical and chromatic aberrations and methods of their reduction ( Qualitative treatment ) –Microscopes; Formula for magnification of simple microscope and compound microscope; Telescope; Formula for magnification of astronomical and terrestrial telescopes; Construction of Ramsden’s and Huygen’s eyepieces; Dispersion of light – Dispersive Power – Pure and impure spectra conditions for obtaining pure spectrum. Different kinds of spectra – Emission spectra-line, band and continuous spectra; Absorption spectra – significance of emission and absorption spectra; Fraunhoffer lines and their significance.

**2. PHYSICAL OPTICS**:Interference- condition for Interference, Young’s Double slit experiment – Derivation for Intensity and fringe width – Uses of Interference.

Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction (Qualitative only). Polarisation: Concepts of Polarisation. Plane Polarisation of Light by Reflection, Refraction and Double Refraction (Polaroids).

**UNIT – XI**

**1. ELECTROSTATICS:** Charges – conservation of charge and additive property of charges. Coulomb’s Law: Permittivity of Free Space and Permittivity of Medium -Force between two point charges. Force due to multiple charges – Principle of Superposition with examples. Electric field – Electric lines of force, their properties – Electric intensity definition – Electric intensity due to isolated charge and due to -multiple charges. Electrostatic Potential – Definition of Electrostatic Potential in an electric field – Potential due to single charge -multiple charges – Electrostatic potential energy – Relation between electrostatic potential and electric intensity. Electric Flux: Gauss’ Law: Electric Flux Definition Gauss’ Law – Statement of Gauss’ Law Application of Gauss’ Law to find electric intensity and electrostatic Potential due to continuous charge distribution of Infinite Long wire, InfinitePlane Sheet and Spherical Shell. Capacitance – Definition of Electrical Capacity of a Conductor – Capacitance – Dielectric constant – Definition of Condenser, its uses – Parallel plate Condenser – Formula for Capacitance of Parallel Plate Condenser, Dielectric – Dielectric Strength – Effect of dielectric on capacitance of capacitors. Capacitors in series and in parallel – derivation of the equivalent capacitance for the above cases. Energy stored in a Condenser – Effect of dielectric on Energy of Condenser – Types of capacitors – their uses.

**UNIT- XII**

**1. CURRENT ELECTRICITY:** Electric current – Flow of Electric charges in a metallic conductor – Drift velocity and mobility – Relation between electric current and drift velocity. Ohm’s Law: Statement – Ohmic and Non Ohmic elements with examples-conductance-specific resistance-variation of resitivity with temperature-variation of resistance with temperature-thermistors. E.M.F. of Cell – Internal resistance and back E. M.F. – Difference between EMF of a Cell and potential difference. Electrical energy, Power definition of KW hr. Kirchhoffs laws: Statement of Kirchhoff’s voltage law – Kirchhoffs current law – Application to Wheatstone bridge – condition for balancing – Meter bridge – Determination of resistance of a conductor using meter bridge. Principle of Potentiometer determination of internal resistance and E.M.F. of a cell using potentiometer. Series and parallel combination of cells – Derivation of equivalent EMF for the above cases.

**2. THERMOELECTRICITY:** Introduction, Seebeck effect, Peltier andThomson effects and their coefficients. Variation of thermo EMF with temperatures Neutral and Inversion Temperatures Applications of Thermo Couple.

**UNIT – XIII**

**1. ELECTROMAGNETICS :** Oersted’s experiment – Biot-savart Law – Ampere Law – Magnetic field near a long straight wire and magnetic field at the center of a circular coil carrying current (with derivation) – Field on the axis of a circular coil carrying current (with expressions only)Tangent Galvanometer – principle and working – Definition of reduction factor – force on a moving charge in a magnetic field – force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field – force between two long straight parallel conductors carrying current – definition of ampere – Fleming’s left hand rule-current loop as a magnetic dipole, force and torque on current loop in a uniform magnetic field – magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron – principle , construction and working of a moving coil galvanometer –conversion of moving coil galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter – comparison of M.C.G with T.G.Electromagnetic induction – Magnetic flux and induced emf- Faraday’s and Lenz’s Laws – Fleming’s right hand rule –self inductance – mutual inductance –principle of transformer. Growth and decay of charge in R.C.Circuit connected to D.C.source – Equations for charge on condenser – Current in inductor. Time constant – Definition and its significance. Alternating Currents– instantaneous, maximum and rms values of alternating current – alternating voltage applied to a pure resistor, pure inductor – pure capacitor – L-R, C-R and L-C-R (expressions for impedance and phase only).

**UNIT – XIV**

**1. ATOMIC PHYSICS :** Discovery of electron – e/m of electron by Thomson’s method – charge of an electron by Millikan’s Oil drop method ( Principle only) –Photoelectric effect-definition – laws of photo electric emission – Einstein’s explanation of Photoelectric effect – Einstein’s photo electric equation and its experimental verification by Millikan’s method – photoelectric cells working and uses. X-rays – Production of X-rays – Coolidge tube – X-rays spectrum –Continuous X-ray spectra – characteristic X-ray spectra – Mosley’s law and its importance – Compton effect (Statement only) –dual nature of matter –DeBroglie’s hypothesis ( concepts only)- Expression for de Broglie Wavelength.

**2. NUCLEAR PHYSICS :** Composition and size of nucleus – mass defect and binding energy and their relation ( Explanations with examples) – Natural radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma radiation and their properties, radioactive decay law, half life and average life of a radioactive substance. Nuclear forces – Their properties – Artificial transmutation of elements Discovery of Neutron – Radio isotopes and their uses – nuclear fission – chain reaction – Principle and working of a nuclear reactor – Nuclear radiation hazards

– protective shielding – types of reactors – Breeder Reactor power reactor and their uses – Nuclear fusion – energy of the sun and the stars ( Carbon –Nitrogen cycle and Proton – Proton cycle) – elementary particles.

**UNIT – XV**

**1. SEMI-CONDUCTOR DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS** :Introduction – intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors (n and p type) Junction diode – p-n junction, depletion layer and barrier potential, forward and reverse bias – current voltage characteristics of junction diode – p-n diode as half wave and full wave rectifier, (only qualitative treatment) Zener diode as a voltage regulator – Transistor – function of emitter, base and collector – p-n-p, n-p-ntransistors – Biasing of transistors, current, voltage- Characteristics of transistor in CE configuration – Transistor as common emitter amplifier (qualitative treatment). Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, and NOR) – Communication Systems; Elements of communication systems (block diagrams only) Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data) bandwidth of Transmission medium –Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation- Modulation – Need for modulation.

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